Leader of the Soviet Union during WW2

Joseph Stalin - Biography, World War II & Facts - HISTOR

  1. Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an..
  2. As leader of the Politburo, Stalin consolidated near-absolute power by 1938 after the Great Purge, a series of campaigns of political murder, repression and persecution. Nazi German troops invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, but by December the Soviet Army managed to stop the attack just shy of Moscow
  3. Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during ww2 quizlet? The Big Three Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Harry Truman met in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, in order to negotiate terms for the end of World War II
  4. The population of the Soviet Union was probably better prepared than any other nation involved in the fighting of World War II to endure the material hardships of the war. This is primarily because the Soviets were so used to shortages and coping with economic crisis in the past, especially during wartime—World War I brought similar.
  5. Originally Answered: If Vladimir lenin was the leader of the Soviet Union during ww2, what would happen

List of leaders of the Soviet Union - Wikipedi

  1. The German attack against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, codenamed Operation Barbarossa, constituted the largest invasion in history, with millions of troops, tens of thousands of tanks and artillery systems, nearly 5,000 combat aircraft, and hundreds of thousands of combat vehicles
  2. The purge of the Red Army Officer Corps was a power play which resulted in Stalin consolidating his power as leader of the Soviet Union. During the pre-war period he systematically imprisoned and/or executed thousands of his own military officers
  3. Under the 1924, 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitutions these bodies served as the collective head of state of the Soviet Union. The Chairman of these bodies personally performed the largely ceremonial functions assigned to a single head of state but was provided little real power by the constitution. The Soviet Union was established in 1922
  4. The Soviet Union took part in World War II from 1939 until the war's end in 1945. At the start of the war, the Soviet Union suffered loss of valuable lands with economic and agricultural potential, great industrial losses and human casualties. This was all caused by the invasion of the Soviet Union by Axis forces in Operation Barbarossa and it resulted in a rapid decline in industrial and.
  5. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941-53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. Learn more about Stalin in this article
  6. World War II in the Soviet Union. Adolph Hitler and the Nazis had a deap-seated hatred for Russian communists. War between Germany and the USSR was probably inevitable. Nevertheless, Stalin used the early years of the war to make territorial gains for himself. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the USSR signed a secret non-agression pact dividing.

Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during ww2 quizlet

  1. Mao Zedong took control over China in 1949 and proclaimed China as the People's Republic of China. During the reign of the Soviet Union, there were communist countries throughout Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa. Today there are only five communist countries in the world
  2. Despite deep-seated mistrust and hostility between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 created an instant alliance between the Soviets and the two greatest powers in what the Soviet leaders had long called the imperialist camp: Britain and the United States
  3. During World War II, the Soviet Union, aided by Armenian and Azeri forces, managed to keep German forces out of Azerbaijan. Despite this, the Soviet Union invaded Iranian Azerbaijan in mid-1941, during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. This occupation helped lead to nationalism among the people of the Iranian Azerbaijan, which was encouraged.

As leader of the Politburo, Stalin consolidated near-absolute power by 1938 after the Great Purge, a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution. Nazi German troops invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, but were repulsed by the Soviets in December. On Stalin's orders, the USSR launched a counter-attack on Nazi Germany Stalin led the Soviet Union to victory in World War Two over Germany. Stalin took control of Eastern Europe after World War Two and established the Soviet Bloc. Relations with the West deteriorated and the Cold War started in 1947. Stalin died a few years later in 1953 Many other generals and colonels were either cashiered or sent to forced-labour camps, or both. The purge's effects were apparent in the serious defeats suffered by the Red Army during the first months of the German invasion (1941), but a corps of younger commanders soon emerged to lead the Soviet Union to victory in World War II What happened to start World War 2? Germany invaded Poland. (1939) List the Allied Powers and leaders of the country's during World War 2. United States of America (FDR), Great Britain (Wiston Churchill), & Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin The Soviet Union was formally led by eight different men: Lenin, Stalin, Malenkov, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko, and Gorbachev. Some, particularly Stalin and Brezhnev, governed for extensive periods of time, while others lasted in office for little more than a year

Soviet Union in World War II - Wikipedi

  1. U.S.-Soviet Alliance, 1941-1945 Although relations between the Soviet Union and the United States had been strained in the years before World War II, the U.S.-Soviet alliance of 1941-1945 was marked by a great degree of cooperation and was essential to securing the defeat of Nazi Germany
  2. Who led the allies in ww2? The main Allied powers were Great Britain, The United States, China, and the Soviet Union. The leaders of the Allies were Franklin Roosevelt (the United States), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), and Joseph Stalin (the Soviet Union). Which countries were members of the allies at the start of the war
  3. Soviet society was so atomized and the people so fearful of reprisals that mass arrests were no longer necessary. Stalin ruled as absolute dictator of the Soviet Union throughout World War II and until his death in March 1953. Translation of letter from Ryko
  4. g the only other party leader after Stalin to hold the highest military rank
  5. The Potsdam Conference, 1945 The Big Three—Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on July 26 by Prime Minister Clement Attlee), and U.S. President Harry Truman —met in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, to negotiate terms for the end of World War II

If Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Soviet Union

A World War II era photo of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (on right) with top aide Viachislav Molotov who helped implement the 1932-33 famine policy in the Ukraine. But the resistance continued. The people simply refused to become cogs in the Soviet farm machine and remained stubbornly determined to return to their pre-Soviet farming lifestyle The third war, arguably the largest single component of World War II, began on 22 June 1941, when the Germans attacked the Soviet Union. Overnight, the Soviet Union became an ally of Britain and a recipient of Lend-Lease aid from the United States. That war, the War on the Eastern Front, is known in the Soviet Union and Russia as Velikaya. Churchill is one of the main World War 2 leaders, and one of the most prominent national leaders in history. Joseph Stalin was the very brutal Communist dictator of Russia (1928-1953). In the years before World War 2 Stalin murdered or imprisoned almost all of Russia's senior military officers, and millions of other Russian citizens, in a. During World War II, Sweden had to partly abandon its policy of neutrality, both under pressure from Germany and quite voluntarily following the Soviet Union's attack on Finland in November 1939 During the war against Nazi Germany, the sons of senior members of the Soviet leadership did not enjoy any privileges and were sent to fight in the bloodiest of battles alongside regular servicemen

The Soviet Role in World War II: Realities and Myths

Leonid Khrushchev, son of the future leader of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev, became an experienced pilot long before World War II - he first began flying in 1933. During the Soviet-Finnish (Winter) War, he signed up as a volunteer to go to the front and performed over 30 sorties in an Ar-2 dive bomber As German armies raced forward during the summer and autumn of 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt worked to prevent Japan from jumping on the Nazi bandwagon and striking the Soviet Union in the Far East. It was of great strategic importance that the Soviet Union did not have to face a two-front war, fighting Germany and Japan at the same time

Stalin's Purge and Its Effects on World War II Guided

The Soviet Union was led by the brutal dictatorship of Joseph Stalin in World War II. Stalin signed a pact of non-aggression with Hitler and the two... See full answer below The next major wartime conference included Roosevelt, Churchill, and the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Meeting at Tehran following the Cairo Conference, the Big Three secured confirmation on the launching of the cross-channel invasion and a promise from Stalin that the Soviet Union would eventually enter the war against Japan Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Zhukov was born on December 1, 1896. Georgy Zhukov was the Soviet Career Officer during World War II. Georgy Zhukov played the biggest role in the Red Army's defense of Eastern Europe. Zhukov was a Soviet Union Officer who led the Soviets through Eastern Europe Under his leadership the Soviet Union had just won the war of the century, and that victory was closely identified with his role as the country's supreme commander. World War II was a global conflict of immense proportions in which 50 million people died, but at its heart was the epic struggle between Stalin and Hitler on the Eastern Front

List of heads of state of the Soviet Union - Wikipedi

Alexei Kosygin was a Soviet-Russian statesman who played an important role during the Cold War. From 1964 to 1980, Kosygin was the Premier of the Soviet Union, a position that enabled him to become one of the most influential policymakers in the Soviet Union during the mid-1960s Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician. Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party, and was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945. Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He was at the center of founding Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust.In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress. Then, project the second World War II photograph, The Big 3, for students to see. Tell students this photo depicts the leaders of Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union meeting during World War II. Ask: Why would these three leaders be meeting? Do these photos depict a different attitude that Americans held toward the Soviet Union

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, cold war tensions returned with an acceleration in the arms race, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the continued intransigence toward political and economic reform within the Soviet bloc, such as the imposition of martial law in Poland. Following his death, he was succeeded by Yuri Andropov Joseph Stalin oversaw the Soviet Union's entry into the Cold War, but the vast majority of the conflict took place after his death. Stalin's hardline foreign policy in the years immediately after World War II ensured the Cold War began in the late 1940s, but after his death in 1953, other Soviet. Recognition of the Soviet Union, 1933 Introduction. On November 16, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt ended almost 16 years of American non-recognition of the Soviet Union following a series of negotiations in Washington, D.C. with the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Maxim Litvinov

Soviet industry in World War II - Wikipedi

Joseph Stalin Biography, World War II, Death, & Facts

During the history of the Soviet Union, there was no such office as the Leader of the nation. The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, who was the head of the party, also frequently doubled as the de facto national leader position for most of the country's history, but there were exceptions, and ambiguity abounded. Because the Soviet political structure was so. Cuban leader Fidel Castro shown in file photo dated May 1963 meeting with his Soviet counterpart Nikita Khrushchev during a visit to Moscow. Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet statesman. He was the final leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet.. Why did the Soviet Union refuse to end its occupation of the countries of Eastern Europe that it conquered during World War II? Soviet leaders wanted to maintain a buffer between Russia and the West, fearing intervention by capitalist countries The Allied Powers, led by Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union, defeated the Axis in World War II. Italy. Italy was the first Axis partner to give up: it surrendered to the Allies on September 8, 1943, six weeks after leaders of the Italian Fascist Party deposed Fascist leader and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Romania

During the early morning of June 22, 1941, Hitler broke the pact by starting Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Soviet-held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front. Before the invasion, Stalin thought that Germany would not attack the Soviet Union until Germany had defeated Britain. At the same time, Soviet generals warned Stalin that Germany had. It was the spring of 1943, at the height of World War II. Two pilots, members of the Soviet Air Force, were flying their planes—Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes, built mainly of plywood and canvas. Tension between the United States, NATO and the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact was high during the late 40s and early 90s—the Cold War was in full force. This was soon after World War II and the United States was suspicious of the the Soviet Union's communistic ways and of their leader Joseph Stalin 1. Nikita Khrushchev was the leader of the USSR after the death of Stalin. A veteran of the Russian Revolution and World War II, he emerged as a potential leader in the early 1950s. 2. Khrushchev had been a member of Stalin's inner circle, however, he denounced Stalin's tyrannical rule in 1956

Lavrentiy Beria - Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of NKVD during World War II, and Deputy Premier in 1946-53. Salomon Morel - commander of NKVD set-up Polish concentration camp after the end of WW2; colonel in Poland's political police; commander of Katowice prison Why Did Soviet Union Enter Ww2. Why Soviet Union entered WW2 On September 1st, 1939, the World War II started by Germany's attack to Poland. The World War II ended on September 2nd, 1945 by Japanese's surrender. Soviet Union entered the World War II on June 22nd, 1941, and joined Allies The alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union during World War II developed out of necessity, and out of a shared realization that each country needed the other to defeat one of the most dangerous and destructive forces of the twentieth century. Ideological differences were subordinated, albeit temporarily, to the common goal of. 1953 - Soviet Union explodes its first hydrogen bomb. 1955 - Nikolay Bulganin replaces Malenkov as prime minister. 1955 - Warsaw Treaty Organisation, or Warsaw Pact, set up. 1956 - Soviet troops. The subjects of this study were former Soviet Union Citizens who left for some reason or another. The studies of part three focus on the role of women in the economy, workforce and home. These studies are very insightful into every period of life in the Soviet Union. Library of Congress, A Country Study: Soviet Union (Former)

The United States and the Soviet Union, allies during the Second World War, became adversaries during the Cold War. The conflict between the communist and the capitalist ideologies was the main cause for starting the Cold War. The Soviet Union had a different idea on how they wanted to run their country FIRST SOVIET LEADER TO VISIT UNITED STATES. WHEN September 1959. WHERE Washington, D.C., New York, California, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Maryland (US) WHO Dwight D. Eisenhower (US) and Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Union). It was one of the first bilateral meetings between the leaders of the US and the Soviet Union after the end of World War II and during the ongoing-Cold War With the invasion of the Soviet Union by Germany and its allies in the summer of 1941, the war changed in several ways. One change, which was not clear to everyone at the time but was true in retrospect, was that from now until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, the focus of the fighting shifted to the new Eastern Front.More people fought and died there than on all other World War II.

Joseph Stalin was the dictator of the Soviet Union during World War II and was originally part of the Axis powers. Many perished under his rule. Born on December 18, 1878, Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a major dictator in the fires of communism. He firmly believed in the Marxist Revolutionary movement Stalin reached the height of his popularity during World War II. He had named himself premier of the Soviet Union by then. During the war, the Soviets was not prepared because of Stalin's purge on the army. But when the Germans invaded the country's capital Moscow in 1941, Stalin stayed in the capital to give the country hope WORLD WAR II AND THE SOVIET UNION. World War II is known as the Great Patriotic War in Russia. Although Stalin tried to avert war with Germany by concluding the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact in 1939, in 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Red Army stopped the Nazi offensive at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943 and drove through Eastern.

Contributor: C. Peter Chen ww2dbase Russia of the World War 2 era was governed by the Soviet Union, or specifically, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which was the head of the Soviet Union. The new Russian government came to power after the February Revolution of 1917 that overthrew Tsar Nicholas II of Imperialist Russia and the October Revolution of 1917 that placed Vladimir. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union, was at its greatest with reference to the area it covered during the period of 1946 and 1991. Who ruled such a great landmass before its fall? Here is a list of all the leaders of the USSR Trotsky and Stalin began to vie against each other for control of the Soviet Union in 1925. By 1927, Stalin would emerge as the unquestioned leader of the Soviet, but first, he had to eliminate Trotsky from the competition. The rivalry between Trotsky and Stalin was personal because both men had radically different views on Communism's nature Even before the United States entered World War II in December 1941, America was sending arms and equipment to the Soviet Union to help it defeat the Nazi invasion. Although in August 1939 the Soviet Union and Germany had signed a nonaggression treaty, Germany's June 1941 invasion of the USSR brought their alliance to an end, forcing the.

Russia vs. Nazi Germany: The War Within World War II That Was a Slaughter. The states occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of the war remain deeply suspicious of Russian intentions Soviet Union Naval Ensign of World War 2 Soviet Union Naval Ensign Meaning: The USSR naval ensign was used from 1935 to 1992 (collapse of the Soviet Union). Once the nation collapsed, the ensign was replaced by the traditional flag of Russia containing the blue Cross of Saint Andrews on a white field that was first introduced during the. Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union during World War II. Log in for more information. Question. Asked 3/24/2014 5:56:43 AM. Updated 11/12/2016 7:10:34 AM Rating. 8. Andrew. M. Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union during World War II. Log in for more information. Added 11/12/2016 7:10:34 AM. This answer has been. According to historian Geoffrey Hosking, excess deaths during the 1930s as a whole were in the range of 10-11 million. Yet despite the turmoil of the mid-to-late 1930s, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before World War II. Attributions. Formation of the Soviet Union The Transfer of Soviet Factories During World War II. In many ways geography served to protect the Soviets during the German invasion in 1941. The extremities of the Russian climate are best known, but the huge expanses of territory were another major consideration, and that was exacerbated by a lack of roads. In one respect, however, geography.

During WW2, which Soviet general was the most respected by

World War II in the USS

The 'Big Three', as defined by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942, comprised of Great Britain, the United States of America, and the Soviet Union. A fourth major power towards the end of the war was China. A series of other countries contributed to the Allied war effort, including one of the biggest players at the start of the war: France The highest Soviet authorities ordered 386,798 people shot in the Kulak Operation of 1937-1938. The other major enemies during these years were people belonging to national minorities who could be associated with states bordering the Soviet Union: some 247,157 Soviet citizens were killed by the NKVD in ethnic shooting actions Stalin was the no.1 killer of Soviet citizens in WW2. Not so well known, and hard to believe, is that even in World War Two, the Soviet state was still the no.1 killer of Soviet civilians outside battle, with the Nazis no.2.Even in wartime, Stalin's regime was killing more of its own people (outside battle) than even an invading barbaric army could

World War 2 - Types of Governmen

The Soviet Union and the United States - Revelations from

Animal Farm A Brief History of the Soviet Union, 1917-1944. Before the revolution of 1917, Russia had been an imperial autocracy since the reign of Peter the Great in the 1700s. Russia had become a great world power after the defeat of Napoleon 's army in the 1800s. During the 1800s, the desire for social and political change in Russia began. These were the agreements made by the United States and Soviet Union. However, in 1947, the Cold War that had emerged between the U.S. and the Soviet, as well as the political differences by Korean citizens in both the north and the south, in addition to other issues and occupation forces, all led to the breakdown in communications and agreements which had taken place prior So what do you think would've been different if Vladimir Lenin was still the Soviet Union leader during WW2? Close. Vote. Posted by 5 minutes ago. So what do you think would've been different if Vladimir Lenin was still the Soviet Union leader during WW2? 0 comments. share. save. hide. report. 100% Upvoted It was a Soviet Union ally and a satellite state so to speak, but never formally in the USSR. It was a Communist state and was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union but never a part of it. I think you guys are getting confused because during World War II, there was a part of Czechoslovakia that was annexed to the USSR

List of World War II puppet states - Wikipedi

At the beginning of World War II the Soviet Union signed a treaty with Nazi Germany, in which both states promised not to attack each other. However, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. In the following two years, the bloodiest battles of the war were fought on Russian soil, including the infamous Battle of Stalingrad.. Millions of Soviet soldiers and civilians were killed Last Witnesses, Alexievich's 1985 collection of memories from Soviets who were children during World War II, has just been translated into English for the first time by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. A selection of stories from the book appears below. Soviet children during a German air raid in the first days of World War II When Lenin died in 1924 Joseph Stalin fought for the leadership of the party. By 1928 he had removed all of his enemies and became the sole leader of the Soviet Union. During the 1930s he started five year development plans and focused on improving the country's industry.. One of the Communist leader's greatest tasks was to collectivize farming. The government took away land from rich.

List of leaders of the Soviet Union Military Wiki Fando

For the Cold War version of the Soviet Union which had been involved, see This Counterpart To be added... 1 Foundation 1.1 Involvement in World War II 2 Units of the Soviet Union 2.1 Infantry Regiments 3 Ground Vehicles 3.1 Support Vehicles 3.2 Tier 1 Combat 3.3 Tier 2 Combat 3.4 Tier 3 Combat 3.5 Super Tank 4 Aircraft 4.1 Fighters 4.2 Bombers 4.3 Cargo Planes 5 Buildings 5.1 Important. During the Soviet-Polish war of 1920, Bolshevik leaders tried to install a pro-Soviet Polish government, however, they lost the war and thus did not achieve their goal. Of all the different nations which coexisted uneasily in the Russian empire, only Poland, Finland and Baltic countries ( Latvia , Lithuania , and Estonia ) received independence. The United States had a 33 percent share of the world's manufacturing. The Soviet Union had 13 percent, and Germany was third at 11 percent. During the Depression, unemployment in capitalist nations enabled the Soviet Union to import thousands of engineers. And others came, running from unemployment and eager to help build socialism

Leaders Throughout The History Of The Soviet Union

Even before the United States entered World War II in December 1941, America sent arms and equipment to the Soviet Union to help it defeat the Nazi invasion. Totaling $11.3 billion, or $180 billion in today's currency, the Lend-Lease Act of the United States supplied needed goods to the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1945. Civil War.5 Average Soviet incomes climbed back to their prewar (1938) level as early as 1948. After the Civil War, in contrast, it took seven to ten years of peace for average Soviet incomes to struggle back to the 1913 level. In the Soviet Union, as elsewhere, the restoration of pre-World War II outpu The city is most famous worldwide for its role during the Second World War and the bloody Battle of Stalingrad, which left approximately two million people dead. In 1961, eight years after Stalin's death, new leader Nikita Khrushchev renamed the city Volgograd, after the River Volga. It has been called the same ever since

Red Army Facts, History, & Size Britannic

The Soviet Union mapped the entire world during the Cold War. The endeavour was so thorough, the maps noted the level of buildings in parts. Creepily, these maps also contained details that domestic maps didn't contain, the kind of details that would come in handy if an invasion of sorts was being planned Soviet and German planes destroyed on the ground during Operation Barbarossa in 1941. Polish Archives On the first day of the invasion, the Soviet air force lost more than 1,200 planes, most. The relationship started out very well, but this good relationship changed when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941. Before the war, the Soviet Union and Germany had a nonaggression pact

This collection of primary source documents discusses international relations during World War II and the years shortly after. Stalin and the Cold War. Leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953, this collection contain Stalin's own writings, conversations, and legacy IRAN DURING WORLD WAR II 2 Iranian government also permitted the leaders of the pro-Axis Iraqi government fleeing after British troops deposed it in late May 1941, including the former Prime Minister Rashid al-Kilani and the Palestinian leader Amin al-Husayni, to escape through Iran to Italy Soviet Russia During World War II In 1939, Joseph Stalin signed a nonaggression pact that would last 10 years with the dictator of Germany, Adolf Hitler. However, Hitler broke this pact in 1941 when he invaded the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) 1949 - Soviet Union explodes its first atomic device; recognises the Communist government in China.. 1950 - Soviet Union and China sign 30-year alliance treaty.. 1950-53 - Outbreak of Korean war sees relations between the Soviet Union and the West deteriorate markedly.. 1953 March - Stalin dies and is succeeded by Georgi Malenkov as prime minister and by Nikita Khrushchev as first secretary of.